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®¾Õ²Ä¯þ “¦÷¯ç©ü ‚¢Ÿ±îF 1820, X¶Ï“¦-«J 15Ê «Õ²Ä-ÍŒÕ-å®-šüq©ð •Et¢-Íê½Õ. ²Ä«Ö->¹ ®¾p%£¾Ç ¹L-TÊ Â¹×{Õ¢-¦¢©ð åXJ-TÊ ®¾Õ²Ä-¯þÂ¹× Æ¦µ¼Õu-Ÿ¿§ŒÕ ¦µÇ„Ã-©ã-¹׈«. Æ¢Åä-Âß¿Õ.. ‚„çÕ «Õ£ÏÇ-@Á© ‹{Õ-£¾Ç¹׈ …Ÿ¿u-«Õ¢©ð ÂÌ©-¹-¤Ä“ÅŒ ¤ò†Ï¢-Íê½Õ. ÅŒÊ 17« \{¯ä ¦ÇE-®¾-ÅÃy-EÂË «uA-êª-¹¢’à “X¾•© «Ÿ¿l ÊÕ¢* XÏšË-†¾ÊÕx æ®Â¹-J¢-Íê½Õ. «Õ£ÏÇ-@Á-©Â¹× ‹{Õ £¾Ç¹׈ ¹Lp¢Íä …Ÿ¿u-«Õ¢©ð ¦µÇ’¹¢’à ‚„çÕ.. '¯ä†¾-Ê©ü «Û„çÕ¯þq ®¾X¶¾-êªèü Ʋò-®Ï-§äÕ-†¾-¯þÑÊÕ ¯ç©-Âí-©Çpª½Õ. 1852©ð ÊÖu§ŒÖ-ªýˆ©ð •J-TÊ „ç៿šË èÇB§ŒÕ «Õ£ÏÇ@Ç £¾Ç¹׈© ®¾Ÿ¿-®¾ÕqÂ¹× £¾É•-éªjÊ Âê½u-Ÿ¿-ª½Õz©ðx ‚¢Ÿ±îF ŠÂ¹ª½Õ. «áÈu¢’à «Õ£ÏÇ-@Á© £¾Ç¹׈©ðx ¦µÇ’¹¢’à ®ÔY©Â¹× ‹{Õ £¾Ç¹׈ ¹Lp¢-ÍŒ-œ¿¢åXj¯ä ‚„çÕ ‡Â¹×ˆ-«’à Ÿ¿%†Ïd åXšÇdª½Õ. 1853©ð NL§ŒÕ¢ å£Ç“F ͵ÃE¢’û Ưä ŌŌhy-„ä-ÅŒhÅî ¹L®Ï ªîÍç-®¾d-ªý©ð ‹ ®¾Ÿ¿-®¾ÕqÊÕ \ªÃp{Õ Íä¬Çª½Õ. ƒ¢Ÿ¿Õ©ð ¦µÇ’¹¢’Ã ÅŒÊ ¯Ã§ŒÕ-¹-ÅŒy¢©ð 'N„ãÏÇÅŒ «Õ£ÏÇ-@Á-©Â¹× ‚®Ïh £¾ÇÂ¹×ˆÑ æXJ{ “X¾Íê½¢ ÍäX¾-šÇdª½Õ ‚¢Ÿ±îF. Æ©Çê’ «Õ£ÏÇ-@Á-©¢-Ÿ¿-JÂÌ £¾Ç¹׈-©åXj Æ«-’Ã-£¾ÇÊ Â¹Lp¢-ÍŒ-œÄ-EÂË X¾©Õ “X¾®¾¢-’Ã©Õ Â¹ØœÄ Íä¬Ç-ªÃ„çÕ. ‚„çÕ Íä®ÏÊ ¨ …Ÿ¿u«Õ X¶¾LÅŒ„äÕ.. Æ„çÕ-JÂà ªÃèÇu¢-’¹¢©ð 9« ®¾«-ª½º ŸÄyªÃ '«Õ£ÏÇ-@Á-©Â¹× ‹{Õ £¾Ç¹׈ÑÊÕ Â¹Lp¢ÍŒœ¿¢. 1920©ð ƒC ÆCµ-ÂÃ-J-¹¢’à ‚„çÖŸ¿¢ ¤ñ¢C¢C. ‚„çÕ ’õª½-„ê½n¢ 1936©ð Æ„çÕ-JÂà “X¾¦µ¼ÕÅŒy¢ ÅíL ÅŒ¤Ä©Ç G@ÁxÊÕ, 1958©ð 骢œî ÅŒ¤Ä©Ç G@ÁxÊÕ Nœ¿Õ-Ÿ¿© Íä®Ï¢C. «Õ£ÏÇ-@Á© £¾Ç¹׈© Â¢ Eª½¢-ÅŒª½ ¤òªÃ{¢ Íä®ÏÊ ®¾Õ²Ä¯þ.. 1906, «ÖJa 13Ê Â¹ÊÕo-«â-¬Çª½Õ.

Æ„çÕ-J-ÂÃÂ¹× Íç¢CÊ •ª½o-L®¾Õd, ²Ä«Ö->¹ Âê½u-¹ª½h ƪáÊ ’îxJ§ŒÖ ®Ôd¯ç„þÕ 1934, «ÖJa 25Ê Š£¾É§çÖ Ê’¹-ª½¢©ð •Et¢-Íê½Õ. 1960, 70©ðx •J-TÊ ®ÔY„ß¿ …Ÿ¿u-«Õ¢©ð ‚„çÕ ÆCµ-Âê½ “X¾A-E-Cµ’à ¤Ä©ï_-¯Ãoª½Õ. ÊÖu§ŒÖªýˆ X¾“A-Â¹Â¹× „Ãu²Ä©Õ ªÃæ®-„ê½Õ. ¨ “¹«Õ¢-©ð¯ä 1969©ð ‚„çÕ ªÃ®ÏÊ '‚X¶¾dªý ¦ÇxÂú X¾«ªý, «Û„çÕ¯þq L¦-êª-†¾¯þÑ „Ãu®¾¢Åî ’îxJ-§ŒÖÂ¹× ®ÔY„ß¿ …Ÿ¿u-«Õ-ÂÃ-J-ºË’à ’¹ÕJh¢-¤ñ-*a¢C. 2005©ð èä¯þ ¤¶ò¢œÄ, ªÃG¯þ „çÖªÃ_-¯þ-©Åî ¹L®Ï «Û„çÕ¯þq O՜˧ŒÖ 客{-ªýÊÕ “¤Äª½¢-Gµ¢-Íê½Õ ’îxJ§ŒÖ. ‡Â¹×ˆ« ¬ÇÅŒ¢ «Õ¢C «Õ£ÏÇ-@Á©Õ OÕœË-§ŒÖ-©ðÂË “X¾„ä-P¢*.. Æ¢Ÿ¿Õ©ð ¦Ç’à ªÃºË¢-ÍÃ-©¯ä …Ÿäl-¬Á¢Åî ¨ 客{ªý X¾E-Íä-®¾Õh¢C. 1972©ð '‡¢‡®ýÑ Æ¯ä X¾“A-¹ÊÕ “¤Äª½¢-Gµ¢*.. Æ¢Ÿ¿Õ©ð ŸÄŸÄX¾Û X¾C-æ£Ç-¯ä@Áx ¤Ä{Õ ‡œË-{-ªý’à X¾E-Íä-¬Ç-ªÃ„çÕ. ‚„çÕ ƒX¾p-šËÂÌ Æ¢ÅŒ-ªÃb-B-§ŒÕ¢’à ÂíEo Âê½u-“¹-«Ö©Õ \ªÃp{Õ Íä®Ï L¢’¹ ®¾«Ö-Ê-ÅŒy¢åXj “X¾®¾¢-’Ã©Õ ƒ®¾Õh-¯Ãoª½Õ. ƒÅŒª½ …Ÿ¿u-«Õ-ÂÃ-ª½Õ-©Åî ¹L®Ï «Õ£ÏÇ@Ç ®¾«Õ-®¾u-©åXj ¤òªÃ-œ¿œ¿¢©ð ¦µÇ’¹¢’à ‹ X¾ª½Õ-’¹ÕÊÕ Â¹ØœÄ Eª½y-£ÏÇ¢-Íê½Õ. ®Ôd¯ç-„þÕÂ¹× ¦µÇª½-ÅŒ-Ÿä-¬Á¢-ÅîÊÖ ÆÊÕ-¦¢Ÿµ¿¢ …¢C. 1956©ð “’Ãœ¿Õu-§äÕ-†¾¯þ X¾ÜJh Íä®ÏÊ ÆÊ¢-ÅŒª½¢ 骢œä@Áx ¤Ä{Õ 'Í箾dªý ¦÷©üqÑ åX¶©ð-†ÏXý Â¢ ¦µÇª½-Åý©ð …¯Ãoª½Õ. ¨ ®¾«Õ-§ŒÕ¢©ð X¾©Õ X¾“A-¹-©Â¹× ¹Ÿ±¿-¯Ã©Õ ªÃ¬Çª½Õ. Æ©Çê’ ’⟵ä-§ŒÕ-„ß¿ “X¾¦µÇ-««â ‚„çÕåXj ÍÃ©Ç¯ä …¢C. ¦ÇL-¹©ðx ‚ÅŒt-N-¬Çy®¾¢ åX¢ÍŒ-œÄ-EÂË ‚„çÕ Íä®ÏÊ Â¹%†ÏÂË EŸ¿-ª½z-Ê¢’à æX骢-šË¢’û X¾“A¹ ‚„çÕÊÕ '©ãjX¶ý ˜ãj„þÕ ‡<„þ„çÕ¢šü Æ„Ã-ª½ÕfÑÅî ®¾ÅŒˆ-J¢-*¢C. Æ©Çê’ ¦§çÖ-“’¹X¶Ô X¾“A¹ “X¾ÍŒÕ-J¢-*Ê.. Æ„çÕ-J-ÂÃ-©ðE 25 ÆÅŒu¢ÅŒ “X¾¦µÇ-NÅŒ «Õ£ÏÇ-@Á©ðx ’îxJ§ŒÖ Íî{Õ Ÿ¿Âˈ¢-ÍŒÕ-¹×-¯Ãoª½Õ. OšËÅî ¤Ä{Õ «ÕJEo Æ„Ã-ª½Õf©Õ ‚„çÕ ²ñ¢ÅŒ-«Õ-§ŒÖuªá. 1986©ð ®Ôd¯ç„þÕ Âí¢ÅŒ Âé¢ ¤Ä{Õ ªí«át ÂÃuÊq-ªýÅî ¦ÇŸµ¿-X¾-œÄfª½Õ. ‚åXj *ÂËÅŒq, °«Ê NŸµÄ-¯Ã©ðx ÅŒTÊ «Öª½Õp-©Åî ‚ „ÃuCµE ®¾«Õ-ª½n¢’à ‡Ÿ¿Õ-ªíˆ-¯Ão-ªÃ„çÕ.

“X¾«áÈ «Õ£ÏÇ@Ç £¾Ç¹׈© …Ÿ¿u-«Õ-ÂÃJºË ²ò•-ª½oªý “{ÖÅý.. 1797©ð ÊÖu§ŒÖ-ªýˆ-©ðE ‹ ¦ÇE®¾ ¹×{Õ¢-¦¢©ð •Et¢-Íê½Õ. ‚ «u«-®¾n-©ð¯ä ‡¯îo \@Áx ¤Ä{Õ «ÕT_Ê ‚„çÕ.. ‚ ÅŒªÃyÅŒ æ®yÍÃa´ “X¾X¾¢-ÍÃEo Ưäy-†Ï®¾Öh «á¢Ÿ¿ÕÂ¹× ²Ä’ê½Õ. «Õ£ÏÇ@Ç £¾Ç¹׈©Õ, ®¾«Ö-ÊÅŒy¢ Â¢ ¤òªÃœä ²Ä«Ö->¹ Âê½u-¹-ª½h’Ã.. «Õ£ÏÇ-@Á©ðx ÍçjÅŒÊu¢ E¢X¾-œÄ-EÂË ‚„çÕ ‡¯îo ÆŸ¿Õs´ÅŒ “X¾®¾¢-’Ã©Õ Íä¬Çª½Õ. ¨ “¹«Õ¢©ð 1851©ð Š£¾É§çÖ Ê’¹-ª½¢©ð •J-TÊ «Õ£ÏÇ@Ç ®¾Ÿ¿-®¾Õq©ð ‚„çÕ “X¾®¾¢’¹¢ ‡¢Åî«Õ¢C «Õ£ÏÇ-@Á©ðx ®¾Öp´JhE E¢XÏ¢C. Æ©Çê’ «Õ£ÏÇ-@Á-©Â¹×, Ê©x-èÇ-B-§Œá-©¢-Ÿ¿-JÂÌ ®¾«ÖÊ «ÖÊ« £¾Ç¹׈©Õ ¹Lp¢-ÍÃ-©E Â¹ØœÄ ¨ ®¾Ÿ¿-®¾Õq©ð ¦µÇ’¹¢’à “{ÖÅý œË«Ö¢œþ Íä¬Çª½Õ. «Õ£ÏÇ-@Á© £¾Ç¹׈Lo ‡©Õ-é’Ah ÍØä©Ç «Õ骯îo ÆŸ¿Õs´ÅŒ …X¾-¯Ãu-²Ä©Õ Íä¬Ç-ªÃ„çÕ. Æ©Çê’ ¦ÇE-®¾ÅŒy¢ ª½Ÿ¿lªá.. Æ¢Ÿ¿ª½Ö æ®yÍŒa´’Ã, ®¾yÅŒ¢-“ÅŒ¢’à °N¢-ÍÃ-©E Â¹ØœÄ ’í¢ÅçAh ÍÚǪ½Õ ²ò•-ª½oªý. “{ÖÅý ’õª½-„ê½n¢ 1971©ð ÊÖu§ŒÖ-ªýˆ-©ðE ÊÖu ¤Ä©üdèü æ®dšü §ŒâE-«-Jq-šÌ©ð ‚„çÕ æXª½Õ OÕŸ¿ “’¹¢Ÿ±Ä-©-§ŒÖEo \ªÃp{Õ Íä¬Çª½Õ. Æ©Çê’ ‚„çÕ ÂîJ¹ “X¾Âê½¢ ÊÖu§ŒÖªýˆ©ðE 宯äÂà ¤¶Ä©üq Ê’¹-ª½¢©ð '¯ä†¾-Ê©ü «Û„çÕ¯þq £¾É©ü ‚X¶ý æX¶„þÕÑ Æ¯ä ƒ¯þ-®Ïd-{Öu-šüE 1981©ð \ªÃp{Õ Íä¬Çª½Õ. «Õ£ÏÇ@Ç ®¾«Ö-ÊÅŒy¢, ¦ÇE-®¾ÅŒy¢.. «¢šË Æ¢¬Ç-©åXj Eª½¢-ÅŒª½¢ ¹%†Ï ®¾L-XÏÊ “{ÖÅý 1883, Ê«¢-¦ªý 26Ê Â¹ÊÕo-«â-¬Çª½Õ.

„äÕK „éü-²òd¯þ“ÂÃX¶ýd.. 1759, \“XÏ©ü 27Ê ©¢œ¿-¯þ©ð •Et¢-Íê½Õ. ‚„çÕ ‹ ª½ÍŒ-ªá-ÅŒ-’ïä Âß¿Õ.. ‹ ŌŌhy-„ä-ÅŒh’Ã, «Õ£ÏÇ-@Á© £¾Ç¹׈© Âê½u-¹-ª½h’Ã, ¯Ãu§ŒÕ-„Ã-C’à ®¾Õ“X¾-®Ï-Ÿ¿Õl´©Õ. X¾Ûª½Õ-†¾ß© ¹¢˜ä «Õ£ÏÇ@Á©äOÕ ÅŒÂ¹×ˆ-«-ÂÃ-Ÿ¿E, Âù-¤òÅä ÍŒŸ¿Õ-«Û-Âî-¹-¤ò-«œ¿¢ «©äx „ÃJ©ð ƒ©Ç¢šË ¦µÇ«Ê ¹©Õ-’¹Õ-Ōբ-Ÿ¿E ‚„çÕ ‡X¾Ûpœ¿Ö „ÃC¢-Íä-„ê½Õ. 'N¢œË-êÂ-†¾¯þ ‚¯þ C éªjšüq ‚X¶ý «Û„çÕ¯þÑ æXª½ÕÅî ‹ “’¹¢Ÿ±ÄEo ªÃ¬Çª½Õ „äÕK. ƒ¢Ÿ¿Õ©ð «áÈu¢’à L¢’¹ ®¾«Ö-Ê-ÅÃyEo ®¾«Õ-Jn¢-ÍŒœ¿¢åXj ‚„çÕ ‡Â¹×ˆ-«’à Ÿ¿%†Ïd åXšÇdª½Õ. ƒ¢šË §ŒÕ•-«Ö-ÊÕ-©Õ’à …¢œÄ-LqÊ ’¹%£ÏÇ-ºÕ©Õ.. ÍŒŸ¿Õ«Û ©ä¹-¤ò-«œ¿¢ «©äx ¦ÇE-®¾-©Õ’à ¦ÅŒ-ÂÃLq «²òh¢-Ÿ¿E.. Æ©Ç-ÂÃ-¹עœÄ „ê½Ö NŸÄu-«¢-ÅŒÕ-©ãjÅä ‚ÅŒt-’õ-ª½-«¢Åî ¤Ä{Õ ®¾«Ö-•¢©ð «Õ¢* ’¹ÕJh¢X¾Û Â¹ØœÄ …¢{Õ¢Ÿ¿E ‚„çÕ ÆGµ-“¤Ä-§ŒÕ-X¾-œä-„ê½Õ. Æ¢Åä-Âß¿Õ.. ®ÔY©Â¹× ͌¹ˆšË NŸ¿u-Ê¢-Cæ®h „ÃJ ¬ÁÂËh-²Ä-«ÕªÃnu©Õ ®¾«Ö-èÇ-Gµ-«%-Cl´ÂË ‡¢ÅŒ-’Ã¯î …X¾-§çÖ-’¹-X¾-œ¿-ÅÃ-§ŒÕE N¬Áy-®Ï¢-Íä-„êÄçÕ. ƒ©Ç ÆX¾pšË «Õ£ÏÇ-@Á©Õ ‡Ÿ¿Õ-ªíˆ¢-{ÕÊo ®¾«Õ-®¾u©Õ, Æ®¾-«Ö-ÊÅŒ.. «¢šË „Ã{-Eo¢-šËF „äÕK ÅŒÊ ª½ÍŒÊ© ŸÄyªÃ ¦£ÏÇ-ª½_ÅŒ¢ Íä¬Çª½Õ. ®ÔY©Â„äÕ ÆÊÕ-EÅŒu¢ ¤òªÃ-œËÊ „äÕK.. 1797, å®åXd¢-¦ªý 10Ê «Õª½-ºË¢-Íê½Õ.